Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Prenatal and Neonatal Development

Reem Deif

Abstract


Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (PAE) contributes to a series of impacts on prenatal and neonatal developmental defects on a continuum ranging from no effect till perinatal death. Different effects of PAE lie on a wide scale of motor and intellectual disabilities which constitute the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD); this includes Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), Partial FAS (PFAS), Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders (ARND), and Alcohol-Related Birth Defects (ARBD). Research has investigated effects of different levels of PAE on cognitive, physical and behavioral aspects of development, taking possible risk factors into account such as maternal age, timing and level of exposure. The purpose of this paper is to assess short-term and long-term effects of PAE through reviewing previous studies with focus on FAS as one of the most common disorders under the FASD category. It may also encourage further research on effective interventions for individuals with PAE and related disorders through the examination of related psychosocial issues.


Keywords


Alcohol exposure; fetal development

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References


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